中国生态旅游 ›› 2022, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (3): 504-518.doi: 10.12342/zgstly.20210124

• 乡村旅游 • 上一篇    下一篇

传统村落文化生态适应性评价及影响因素研究

林明水1,2,3(), 陈玉萍1, 李微1, 曾春水1,2,*(), 李春莹1   

  1. 1.福建师范大学旅游学院,福州 350117
    2.智慧旅游福建省高校重点实验室,福州 350117
    3.闽东旅游扶贫研究中心,宁德 352100
  • 收稿日期:2021-12-22 修回日期:2022-05-28 出版日期:2022-06-28 发布日期:2022-08-26
  • 通讯作者: *曾春水(1987-),男,博士,讲师,研究方向为城市与区域发展。E-mail: zcs025@163.com
  • 作者简介:林明水(1980-),男,博士,副教授,研究方向为文化和旅游地理。E-mail: linms@fjnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家社科基金重大项目(21&ZD179)

The evaluation of cultural ecological adaptability of traditional villages and its influencing factors

Lin Mingshui1,2,3(), Chen Yuping1, Li Wei1, Zeng Chunshui1,2,*(), Li Chunying1   

  1. 1. College of Tourism, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350117, China
    2. Higher Educational Key Laboratory for Smart Tourism of Fujian Province, Fuzhou 350117, China
    3. East Fujian Tourism Poverty Alleviation Research Center, Ningde 352100, China
  • Received:2021-12-22 Revised:2022-05-28 Published:2022-06-28 Online:2022-08-26

摘要:

文化生态适应性量化评价是判别传统村落文化生态适应能力、应对文化生态失衡问题的基础与前提。基于文化生态学理论,本文从评价指标筛选、影响因素识别、分析方法匹配等方面,完善文化生态“失衡-适应”分析框架,并以宁德市为例进行实证分析。研究表明:文化生态失衡是文化生态系统应对内外部冲击所产生的暂时性失调现象,其本质是文化适应生态环境能力的下降;文化生态适应性评价指标体系应体现文化生态的形态、内容、传承3项适应性,评价对象既要包含居民、游客、非遗传承人等适应主体,也要包含土地、传统建筑、基础设施等适应客体;从实证区域看,传统村落文化生态适应性呈现“强适应性-无失衡”“中适应性-单项失衡”和“低适应性-多项失衡”等特征,在自然和人文因素的综合影响分析中,发现自然因素中的归一化植被指数(NDVI)、人文因素中的到县城中心距离与地域文化等影响最为显著。

关键词: 文化生态适应性, 指标体系, 影响因素, 灰色关联分析, 传统村落, 宁德市

Abstract:

The quantitative evaluation of cultural ecological adaptability is the basis and premise to judge the adaptive power of traditional villages and to address the problem of cultural ecological imbalance. Based on the theory of cultural ecology, this paper improves the “Imbalance-Adaptation” analytical framework of cultural ecology from the aspects of selecting evaluation indicators, identifying influencing factors and matching the analytical method via analyzing the case of Ningde City empirically. The research shows that: the imbalance of cultural ecology is a temporary phenomenon emerging when cultural ecosystem is coping with internal and external shocks, and implying the decline of cultural adaptability to the ecological environment; the evaluation indicators of the cultural ecological adaptability should include the adaptability of traditional cultural heritage from the aspects of forms, content and inheritance. The evaluation covers not only the subjects of adaption such as residents, tourists and inheritors of intangible cultural heritage, but also the objects of adaption such as land, building, infrastructure and cultural ecological system. Lastly, from the empirical perspective, the cultural ecological adaptability of traditional villages presents the characteristics of “strong adaptability-no imbalance”, “medium adaptability-single dimension imbalance” and “low adaptability-multiple dimensions imbalance”; the adaptability is affected by the comprehensive influence of natural and human factors, among which the vegetation index (NDVI) in natural factors, the distance to the county center and regional culture in human factors are the most significant.

Key words: cultural and ecological adaptability, indicator system, influencing factors, grey relational analysis, traditional villages, Ningde City