中国生态旅游 ›› 2022, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (2): 208-219.doi: 10.12342/zgstly.20220037

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中国自然保护地体系建设——红线管控、旅游发展与文化表征

吴必虎1(), 盈斌2,*(), 杨秋风3   

  1. 1.北京大学城市与环境学院旅游研究与规划中心, 北京 100871
    2.贵州师范大学喀斯特研究院, 贵阳 550001
    3.北京大地风景文旅集团品牌研究院, 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2022-03-17 修回日期:2022-04-18 出版日期:2022-04-28 发布日期:2022-06-17
  • 通讯作者: *盈斌(1983-),男,博士,副教授,硕士生导师,研究方向为喀斯特乡村可持续发展,世界自然遗产保护管理。E-mail: yingbin@gznu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:吴必虎(1962-),男,博士,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为城市与区域旅游规划、目的地管理与营销以及更广泛的旅游与游憩。E-mail: tigerwu@urban.pku.edu.cn

Constructing a natural protected area system in China: Red line management, tourism development and cultural representation

Wu Bihu1(), Ying Bin2,*(), Yang Qiufeng3   

  1. 1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    2. School of Karst Science, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001, China
    3. Brand Academy of BES Culture and Tourism Group, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2022-03-17 Revised:2022-04-18 Published:2022-04-28 Online:2022-06-17

摘要:

建立以国家公园为主体的自然保护地体系,是贯彻习近平生态文明思想的重大举措,是党的十九大提出的重大改革任务。有效协调自然保护地保护与开发的功能定位是实现“生态保护、绿色发展、改善民生”三效合一目标的难点与重点。本文围绕如何有效发挥自然保护地生态系统服务功能这一问题框架,系统分析中国自然保护地在生态保护红线划定、旅游发展与文化要素表征3个方面存在的问题与障碍因素,通过政策梳理、学理辨析、国内外对比等研究方法提出以上三方面问题的破题策略。本文认为要建设与国际接轨、具有中国特色的自然保护地体系,需要运用“可接受的改变极限”思想开展红线划定与管控,因地制策、因时制宜、持续监测;需要加大游憩机会谱的研究及应用实践,实现生态保护与旅游发展相得益彰;需要重视自然保护地内文化景观的提炼识别及其表征、传播,重视国家公园文化认同意义表达。

关键词: 自然保护地, 生态保护红线, 生态旅游发展, 游憩机会谱, 文化沉积表征

Abstract:

Establishing a natural protected area system that mainly based on national parks is a fundamental action to practice Xi Jinping’s ecological civilization thought. It is also a major reform task proposed by the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China in 2017. The balance between the protection and development of natural protected areas has always been a difficulty and focus in the process of achieving the goal of ecological protection, green development and improvement of people’s livelihood. Informed by the analytical framework of how natural protected areas function effectively in providing the ecosystem service, this paper systematically addresses the problems and obstacles existing in three aspects: delineation of ecological protection red line, tourism development and characterization of cultural elements deposition in nature reserves. Then, the solutions to those problems are formulated through policy sorting, theoretical analysis and comparison between the domestic and international research. The results show that to construct a natural protected area system with international standards and Chinese characteristics, Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) should be applied in in the delimiting and managing the red lines of natural protected areas, and issuing policies according to local conditions and continuous monitoring; the study and application of recreation opportunity spectrum should be strengthened in China to realize the complementarity between ecological protection and tourism development; the construction of a national protected area system in China should give value to the identification, symbolization and communication of cultural landscape, and attach importance to the expression of cultural identity via national parks.

Key words: natural protected area, ecological protection red line, ecotourism development, recreation opportunity spectrum, cultural representation