中国生态旅游 ›› 2022, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (2): 320-329.doi: 10.12342/zgstly.20220045

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俄罗斯国家公园建设与管理体系及其对中国的启示

张光生*(), 林天飞, 朱蓉   

  1. 江南大学旅游与生态环境研究中心,无锡 214122
  • 收稿日期:2022-03-10 修回日期:2022-04-15 出版日期:2022-04-28 发布日期:2022-06-17
  • 通讯作者: *张光生(1963-),男,博士,教授,研究方向为旅游生态学、环境生态学。E-mail: wxzhanggs@jiangnan.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:张光生(1963-),男,博士,教授,研究方向为旅游生态学、环境生态学。E-mail: wxzhanggs@jiangnan.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    教育部人文社会科学研究规划基金项目(19YJAZH131)

Construction and management of national parks in Russia and their enlightenment to China

Zhang Guangsheng*(), Lin Tianfei, Zhu Rong   

  1. Tourism Ecological Environment Research Center, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China
  • Received:2022-03-10 Revised:2022-04-15 Published:2022-04-28 Online:2022-06-17

摘要:

本文回顾了俄罗斯国家公园的发展历史,在重点分析俄罗斯国家公园的管理体系和经验的基础上,探讨其对中国国家公园建设与管理的启示意义。研究发现:(1)俄罗斯国家公园的建设与发展和俄罗斯自然保护区的发展历史密切关联,俄罗斯国家公园的建设与管理大致分为5个阶段;(2)俄罗斯国家公园经过近40年的发展,在法律体系、管理战略、空间管制和社区发展等方面积累了较为丰富的实践经验;(3)建议中国借鉴俄罗斯国家公园管理经验,尽快制定《国家公园法》,实施国家公园管理战略,严格空间管控,完善社区协同发展机制等。

关键词: 国家公园, 管理战略, 公园条例, 生态旅游, 俄罗斯

Abstract:

Reviewing the development history of Russian national parks, this paper focuses on the analysis of their management system and managerial experiences, and then discusses their enlightenment to the construction and management of national parks in China. The research discovers that: (1) the construction and development of Russian national parks can be generally divided into five stages, which are closely related to the development history of Russian nature reserves. (2) Russian national parks have accumulated rich practical experience in legal system, management strategy, space regulation and community development in the past 40 years. (3) It is suggested that China should learn from Russia regarding the experience of national park management, legislate the National Park Law as soon as possible, implement the national park management strategy, strictly regulate the space, and improve the coordinated mechanism for community development.

Key words: national park, management strategy, national park regulations, ecotourism, Russia