中国生态旅游 ›› 2022, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (2): 189-207.doi: 10.12342/zgstly.20220071

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国家公园科学保护与生态旅游高质量发展——理论思考与创新实践

章锦河1(), 苏杨2, 钟林生3, 吴承照4, 张玉钧5, 李鹏6, 薛华菊7, 徐菲菲8, 张宏梅9, 张香菊3   

  1. 1.南京大学地理与海洋科学学院,南京 210023
    2.国务院发展研究中心,北京 100026
    3.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    4.同济大学建筑与城市规划学院,上海 200092
    5.北京林业大学园林学院,北京 100083
    6.云南大学工商管理与旅游管理学院,昆明 650031
    7.青海师范大学旅游学院,西宁 810016
    8.东南大学人文学院,南京 210018
    9.上海师范大学旅游学院,上海 200235
  • 收稿日期:2022-03-10 修回日期:2022-04-12 出版日期:2022-04-28 发布日期:2022-06-17
  • 作者简介:章锦河(1970-),男,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为旅游生态环境影响。E-mail: zhangjinhe@nju.edu.cn.本文其他作者为共同第二作者
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(41771147)

Scientific protection of national parks and high-quality development of tourism: Theoretical thinking and innovative practice

Zhang Jinhe1(), Su Yang2, Zhong Linsheng3, Wu Chengzhao4, Zhang Yujun5, Li Peng6, Xue Huaju7, Xu Feifei8, Zhang Hongmei9, Zhang Xiangju3   

  1. 1. School of Geography and Ocean Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
    2. Development Research Center of the Sstate Council, Beijing 100026, China
    3. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    4. College of Architecture and Urban Planning, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
    5. School of Landscape Architecture, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
    6. School of Business and Tourism Management, Yunnan University, Kunming 650031, China
    7. College of Tourism, Qinghai Normal University, Xining 810016, China
    8. School of Humanities, Southeast University, Nanjing 210018, China
    9. Tourism College, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200235, China
  • Received:2022-03-10 Revised:2022-04-12 Published:2022-04-28 Online:2022-06-17

摘要:

国家公园科学保护与生态旅游高质量发展是国家公园体制建设面临的重大实践需求和重要科学议题。在阐释国家公园高质量发展特征的基础上,围绕国家公园的生态保护、生态旅游、特许经营、保护模式、解说系统、生态产业、社区参与、管理体制等理论与实践问题进行思考与跨学科对话。分析认为:(1)科研支撑是国家公园科学保护与生态旅游高质量发展的基石;(2)生态旅游是国家公园生态产品价值实现的重要方式,其必要条件是要素支撑体系、特许经营制度和关键政策突破;(3)特许权和特许经营制度是保护机制,从旅游特许经营走向社区特许经营、生物科技特许经营、基础设施特许经营、区域联合特许经营等是未来发展的必然趋势;(4)社区参与是国家公园高质量发展的基础保障,渠道拓展、能力提升、共建共享是提升社区参与质量的重要方式;(5)文化服务是国家公园多元功能的重要组成部分,构建科学的解说系统、建设实体平台和虚拟平台,有利于促进文化服务的供给及其社会文化价值的实现。

关键词: 国家公园, 生态保护, 生态旅游, 特许经营, 社区参与, 高质量发展

Abstract:

The scientific protection of national parks and the high-quality development of tourism are major practical needs and important scientific topics facing the construction of national park systems. On the basis of explaining the characteristics of high-quality development of national parks, theoretical thinking and interdisciplinary dialogues are conducted on theoretical and practical issues such as ecological protection, eco-tourism, franchising, protection mode, interpretation system, ecological industry, community participation, and management system of national parks. The analysis believes that: (1) scientific research is the cornerstone of the scientific protection of national parks and the high-quality development of tourism. (2) Ecotourism is an important way to realize the value of ecological products in national parks. Its necessary conditions are factor support system, franchise system and key policy breakthrough. (3) Franchise and franchise system are the protection mechanism. It is the inevitable trend of future development from tourism franchise to community franchise, biotechnology franchise, infrastructure franchise and regional joint franchise. (4) Community participation is the basic guarantee for the high-quality development of national parks. Channel expansion, capacity improvement, co-construction and sharing are important ways to improve the quality of community participation. (5) Cultural service is an important part of the multiple functions of national parks. The construction of scientific interpretation system, physical platform and virtual platform is conducive to promoting the supply of cultural services and the realization of social and cultural values.

Key words: national parks, ecological protection, ecotourism, franchise, community participation, high-quality development