中国生态旅游 ›› 2021, Vol. 11 ›› Issue (2): 161-175.doi: 10.12342/zgstly.20210041

• 旅游新业态 •    下一篇

物候学在旅游地理理论与实践中的应用基础和前景

戴君虎1,2,3(), 高新月1,2, 刘浩龙1,*(), 陶泽兴1, 马翔1, 曹丽娟1   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3.中国-巴基斯坦地球科学研究中心 中国科学院-巴基斯坦高等教育委员会,伊斯兰堡 45320,巴基斯坦
  • 收稿日期:2021-03-05 修回日期:2021-03-25 出版日期:2021-04-28 发布日期:2021-04-28
  • 通讯作者: * 刘浩龙(1976-),男,博士,副研究员,主要从事历史地理、全球变化与旅游地理研究。E-mail: liuhl@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:戴君虎(1968-),男,博士,研究员,主要从事植物地理学、植被生态学、物候学和全球变化影响等研究。E-mail: daijh@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFA0606102);国家自然科学基金项目(41771056);国家自然科学基金项目(41871033)

Application basis and future perspectives of phenology in the theory and practice of tourism geography

DAI Junhu1,2,3(), GAO Xinyue1,2, LIU Haolong1,*(), TAO Zexing1, MA Xiang1, CAO Lijuan1   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. China-Pakistan Joint Research Center on Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences-Higher Education Commission of Pakistan, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan
  • Received:2021-03-05 Revised:2021-03-25 Published:2021-04-28 Online:2021-04-28

摘要:

在20世纪80年代应用地理大发展中应运而生的旅游地理学,因发展历程尚短、理论方法体系不十分健全和完善,对持续快速发展的旅游业支撑乏力,迫切需要从相邻学科吸收养分。物候学与旅游地理学交叉性质明显,可多方面支撑其发展。本文系统梳理了物候学对旅游业的学科支撑作用、具体实践应用领域、服务于旅游业高质量发展的6个维度以及气候变化对物候旅游资源和相关行业的影响。主要结论有:(1)物候概念有助于系统整合旅游系统中自然、人文和社会要素的相关旅游资源,而物候学应用亦可有效提升区域旅游业的服务支持子系统、交通子系统以及医疗健康子系统的效用;(2)物候学在旅游业发展中的实践应用主要涉及利用植物季相进行景观设计、观赏季划分与观赏期预报、体验类生态旅游活动的时间规划、花粉浓度预报与冰雪灾情预警以及旅游线路设计五大方面;(3)物候学可在要素、行业、过程、时空、方位和部门6个维度上服务于旅游业的高质量发展;(4)物候旅游资源和相关产业对于气候变化响应敏感,相关研究人员在未来应注重气候变化对其的风险影响研究,深入分析游客感知、行为反应所受影响,并积极参与中长期产业发展规划以及行业报告编制。从学科发展和产业应用的角度讲,物候学可为旅游学的研究提供自然科学的理论支撑,也为当今气候变化背景下旅游业的可持续发展提供科学指导。

关键词: 物候学, 物候旅游, 旅游地理, 旅游高质量发展, 气候变化风险

Abstract:

Tourism geography, which emerged during the great development of applied geography in the 1980s, cannot now sufficiently support the rapid development of tourist industry due to its short period of development and insufficient theoretical and methodological systems. Therefore, the development of tourist industry urgently needs the knowledge of related more developed disciplines. Phenology is a branch of geography that has an intersection with tourism geography, and it has a very close relationship with tourist industry. The paper systematically reviews the role of phenology in supporting the tourism system, its applications in five specific industrial fields, the role in promoting six dimensions of the high-quality development of tourism, and the influence of climate change on phenological tourism resources and related industries. The analysis shows that: (1) The concept of phenology can help to integrate the tourism resources of natural, human, and social elements in the tourism system. The application of phenology in the tourism industry can effectively improve the service support sub-systems, transportation sub-systems, and medical and health sub-system. (2) The practical application of phenology in the tourist industry mainly involves plant landscape design, determination of ornamental tourism season, ornamental phenology forecasting, time planning for eco-tourism activities, pollen concentration forecasting, ice and snow disaster warning, and tourist route design. (3) Phenology supports six dimensions of high-quality development of tourism, including element, industry, process, time and space, direction, and participating sector. (4) Phenological tourism resources and related industrial links are sensitive to climate change. In the future, studies should focus on the risks of climate change in different climate scenarios and in-depth analysis of the influences on the perceptions and behavior of tourists. Phenological change should be integrated into medium and long-term industrial development plans and industry reports. From the perspectives of disciplinary development and industrial application, phenology can provide theoretical basis for tourism research, as well as practical guidance for the sustainable development of tourism in the context of climate change.

Key words: phenology, phenology tourism, tourism geography, high-quality tourism development, climate change risk