中国生态旅游 ›› 2021, Vol. 11 ›› Issue (5): 676-690.doi: 10.12342/zgstly.20210077

• 野生动物旅游 • 上一篇    下一篇

亚太地区野生生物旅游的可持续发展实践与挑战

诺尔·斯科特(Noel Scott)1,2(), 朗达·格林(Ronda Green)3, 大卫·纽瑟姆(David Newsome)4   

  1. 1.阳光海岸大学可持续研究中心,昆士兰 4556,澳大利亚
    2.泰莱大学旅游研究与创新中心,雪兰莪州 47500,马来西亚
    3.澳大利亚野生动物旅游协会,澳大利亚
    4.莫道克大学科学、健康、工程和教育学院,西澳大利亚 6150,澳大利亚
  • 收稿日期:2021-08-15 修回日期:2021-10-01 出版日期:2021-10-28 发布日期:2022-05-30
  • 作者简介:诺尔·斯科特(Noel Scott),男,博士,教授,研究方向为应用心理学、旅游体验和目的地管理与营销。E-mail: nscott1@usc.edu.au第一联系人:

    原作为英文写作,中译稿由崔庆明研究员完成。

Sustainable development of wildlife tourism in Asia and the Pacific: Maintaining good practice

Noel Scott1,2(), Ronda Green3, David Newsome4   

  1. 1. University of the Sunshine Coast, Queensland 4556, Australia
    2. Center for Research and Innovation in Tourism, Taylor's University, Selangor Darul Ehsan 47500, Malasia
    3. Wildlife Tourism Australia, Australia
    4. College of Science, Health, Engineering and Education, Murdoch University, Western Australia 6150, Australia
  • Received:2021-08-15 Revised:2021-10-01 Published:2021-10-28 Online:2022-05-30

摘要:

野生动物旅游主要基于生物多样性热点地区和标志性物种进行。亚太地区的野生动物旅游已经很受欢迎,预计在新冠肺炎疫情之后还会继续发展。本文为野生动物旅游的可持续发展提供了一系列建议,讨论了在野外观赏野生动物的准则以及植物和真菌观赏的可能性。野生动物旅游的优秀实践标准包括有效的保护区管理、健全的环境政策、控制旅游人数的增长、管理过度拥挤、导游培训、关注动物福利和监测旅游对野生动物的影响等,野生动物旅游的适当推广和营销也需要加以考虑。野生动物旅游的主要挑战包括对大环境的保护不到位,对实现可持续发展要求的误解,以及公园管理者和旅游经营者对游客管理的不足。新冠肺炎疫情的出现为野生动物旅游的影响研究提供了一个契机,反思以前的野生动物旅游业务并在未来维持并改进野生动物旅游。

关键词: 野生动物旅游, 野生生物旅游, 优秀实践, 旅游可持续发展, 亚太地区

Abstract:

Wildlife tourism in the Asia-Pacific region has become popular and is expected to continue so after COVID-19. This paper provides a series of recommendations for sustainable development of wildlife tourism and discusses guidelines for wildlife viewing in the wild. Currently, wildlife viewing is based around biodiversity hotspots and iconic species. Opportunities for expanding viewing of plants and fungi are also discussed. Good practice criteria such as attention to effective protected area management, sound environmental policy, planning for growth in tourism numbers, management of overcrowding, tour guide training, attention to animal welfare, and monitoring the impacts of tourism on wildlife are considered. Promotion and marketing of wildlife tourism should also be highlighted. Key challenges include unsatisfactory protection of the wider environment, misinterpretation of what is required to achieve sustainability, and inadequate visitor management by park agencies and tour operators. The impact of COVID-19 on wildlife tourism provides the opportunity to reflect on previous wildlife tourism operations and to maintain and improve wildlife tourism in the future.

Key words: wildlife tourism, good practice, tourism sustainable development, Asia and the Pacific