中国生态旅游 ›› 2021, Vol. 11 ›› Issue (5): 663-675.doi: 10.12342/zgstly.20210078

• 野生动物旅游 • 上一篇    下一篇

旅游能缓解保护地人与野生动物冲突吗?

崔庆明1,2()   

  1. 1.华南师范大学旅游管理学院,广州 510006
    2.华南师范大学华南生态文明研究中心,广州 510006
  • 收稿日期:2021-08-20 修回日期:2021-09-11 出版日期:2021-10-28 发布日期:2022-05-30
  • 作者简介:崔庆明(1988-),男,博士,特聘研究员,研究方向为野生动物旅游、生态旅游和旅游可持续发展。E-mail: cuiqingming@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41901161)

Can tourism mitigate human-wildlife conflict in protected areas?

CUI Qingming1,2()   

  1. 1. School of Tourism Management, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, China
    2. South China Ecological Civilization Research Center, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, China
  • Received:2021-08-20 Revised:2021-09-11 Published:2021-10-28 Online:2022-05-30

摘要:

人与野生动物冲突正成为我国自然保护地管理的显性问题,理解并寻找缓解人与野生动物冲突的方法成为重要研究问题。发展旅游被视为缓解此类冲突的重要手段,但已有研究尚未系统地评估旅游的缓解作用。本研究通过整合性综述的方法,探讨旅游能否以及如何缓解人与野生动物冲突这一问题。研究发现旅游对人与野生动物冲突的影响是多重的。对于辐射范围内的社区,旅游通过给社区带来经济利益,可以提高居民对野生动物的容忍度,从而缓解冲突。但旅游经济利益分配存在不充足、不平等和不匹配等问题,因而其缓解冲突的效应也不均衡。有些旅游活动还会产生负面生态影响,导致野生动物对人类习惯化和种群数量过度增长,进而加剧景区周边社区与野生动物冲突。本文最后建议加强对旅游的分配正义、生态影响和社会文化视角的研究。

关键词: 野生动物旅游, 自然保护地, 人与野生动物冲突, 生态补偿, 分配正义

Abstract:

Human-wildlife conflict is becoming a visible problem in the management of protected areas in China. Understanding such conflict and finding mitigation measures have become critical research issues. The development of tourism is regarded as an important means of mitigating human-wildlife conflict, but existing studies have not yet systematically assessed the mitigating role of tourism. This study examines the questions of whether and how tourism can mitigate human-wildlife conflict through an integrative review. The study finds that the impacts of tourism on human-wildlife conflict are various. For communities within the radius, tourism can bring economic benefits to the community through revenue sharing programs and community participation, thus increase community tolerance of wildlife and promote human-wildlife coexistence. However, tourism development also has its limitations. First, the economic output of tourism is limited and cannot radiate to all communities that are in conflict with wildlife. Second, the distribution of economic benefits from tourism is unequal between outside companies and local communities, between different social classes, and between different power groups, resulting in few benefits for the poor. Third, the equal treatment of communities in different zones leads to less benefit for communities closer to protected areas that suffer from more wildlife damage, resulting in spatial injustice in the distribution. Fourth, some benefit-sharing projects focus on the construction of social infrastructure with long-term benefits, while ignoring short-term livelihood problems faced by individual households. The above problems make the mitigating effects of tourism uneven. Moreover, some tourism activities also have negative ecological impacts, leading to habituation of wildlife to humans and population growth, which in turn exacerbate community-wildlife conflicts around scenic areas. The paper concludes by suggesting that research on the distributive justice, ecological impacts, and sociocultural perspectives of tourism should be strengthened.

Key words: wildlife tourism, protected areas, human-wildlife conflict, ecological compensation, distributive justice