中国生态旅游 ›› 2022, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (1): 169-183.doi: 10.12342/zgstly.20220011

• 新冠疫情下的旅游 • 上一篇    下一篇

新冠肺炎疫情对中国旅游业的影响及其应对探讨

唐承财1,4(), 张宏磊2, 赵磊3,*(), 杨媛媛1,4, 魏歌2   

  1. 1.北京第二外国语学院旅游科学学院,北京 100024
    2.南京大学地理与海洋科学学院, 南京 210023
    3.浙江工业大学管理学院工商管理系, 杭州 310014
    4.北京旅游发展研究基地,北京 100024
  • 收稿日期:2022-01-12 修回日期:2022-02-15 出版日期:2022-01-28 发布日期:2022-04-12
  • 通讯作者: *赵磊(1984-),男,山东新泰人,博士,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为旅游经济学。E-mail: leizhde1984@126.com
  • 作者简介:唐承财(1982-),男,湖南中方人,博士(后),教授,硕士生导师,研究方向为生态旅游、低碳旅游、乡村旅游、冰雪旅游。E-mail: tcc5808@163.com; 其他作者为共同第二作者。
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金面上项目(42071199);国家自然科学基金面上项目(41771153);国家社科基金艺术学重大项目(20ZD02)

Discussion on the impact of COVID-19 on China's tourism industry and its responses

TANG Chengcai1,4(), ZHANG Honglei2, ZHAO Lei3,*(), YANG Yuanyuan1,4, WEI Ge2   

  1. 1. School of Tourism Sciences, Beijing International Studies University, Beijing 100024, China
    2. School of Geography and Ocean Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
    3. The Department of Business Administration, School of Management, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, China
    4. Research Center of Beijing Tourism Development, Beijing 100024, China
  • Received:2022-01-12 Revised:2022-02-15 Published:2022-01-28 Online:2022-04-12

摘要:

新冠肺炎疫情给全球旅游业带来了巨大的冲击和挑战,深入探讨疫情对旅游业的影响及应对成为各界关注的重点。本文从居民出游意愿、场所空间容量、市场经营主体、旅游政策等供需关系方面分析了新冠肺炎疫情对中国旅游业的影响。研究表明:(1)疫情对居民出游消费信心、意愿和能力造成较大影响,但潜在出游需求仍然存在。(2)疫情对旅游地空间环境造成较大物理和心理压缩,与旅游关联紧密的文化产业、娱乐业的生产空间容量也受到了间接影响。(3)疫情对旅游产业链、旅游市场主体经营等方面造成了全面且深远的影响。(4)疫情防控常态化下旅游政策供给以“流动管制”和“行业纾困”并重为主。面对疫情的持续影响,建议着重从组织响应、空间响应和企业韧性3个方面进一步强化旅游业应对能力,即:完善业外支撑、业内驱动、业界保障的三位一体组织响应体系;构建旅游目的地(点)-连结(线)-网络结构(网络)的三级协同空间响应机制;从企业组织、产品服务、管理和营销、市场品牌、员工心理等5个方面加强旅游企业韧性建设,以增强中国旅游业恢复发展能力。

关键词: 新冠肺炎疫情, 旅游目的地, 旅游市场, 旅游环境, 旅游移动性, 企业韧性, 旅游政策, 中国

Abstract:

The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has brought enormous impacts and challenges to global tourism. How to cope with the pandemic has become the focus of attention. This paper analyzes the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the tourism of China from the aspects of residents' travel willingness, tourist site space capacity, operation of tourism market entities, and tourism policy supply. The research results show that: (1) The pandemic has greatly impacted residents' consumer confidence, willingness, and ability to travel, but the potential travel demand still exists. (2) The pandemic has caused great physical and psychological compression to the tourism space environment. The production space capacity of the cultural industry and the entertainment industry, which are closely related to tourism, has also been indirectly affected. (3) The pandemic has had a comprehensive and far-reaching impact on the tourism industry chain and the operation of tourism market entities. (4) Under the normalization of pandemic prevention and control, the tourism policy has mainly been based on "flow control" and "industry rescue". Eventually, based on the response system, spatial response mechanism, and the resilience of tourism enterprises, the responses of China's tourism industry to the pandemic are explored. First, the trinity response system of tourism to resist the pandemic should be constructed from the three dimensions of hierarchical government support, management department drive, and industry organization coordination. Second, the spatial response mechanism of the tourism system based on the three-level collaborative destination (point) - link (line) - network structure (network) under the normalization of pandemic prevention and control is proposed. Third, the countermeasures to enhance the resilience of tourism enterprises are put forward from five aspects: enterprise organization, product service, management and the marketing, and market brand and employee psychology.

Key words: COVID-19, tourism destinations, tourism market, tourism environment, tourism mobility, enterprise resilience, tourism policy, China