中国生态旅游 ›› 2023, Vol. 13 ›› Issue (4): 694-705.doi: 10.12342/zgstly.20230031

• 专栏:乡村旅游 • 上一篇    下一篇

旅游促进民族村寨重构的过程与机制——以普者黑仙人洞村为例

李佳(), 朱敏   

  1. 云南大学工商管理与旅游管理学院,昆明 650500
  • 收稿日期:2023-03-21 修回日期:2023-07-22 出版日期:2023-08-28 发布日期:2023-11-15
  • 作者简介:李佳(1980-),女,博士,副教授,硕士生导师,研究方向为旅游扶贫、乡村旅游、民族旅游。E-mail: judylijia@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金一般项目(21BJY139)

The process and mechanism of tourism promoting the reconstruction of ethnic villages: Taking Puzhehei Xianrendong Village as an example

Li Jia(), Zhu Min   

  1. College of Business Administration and Tourism Management, Yunnan University, Kunming 650500, China
  • Received:2023-03-21 Revised:2023-07-22 Published:2023-08-28 Online:2023-11-15

摘要:

民族村寨文化生态等旅游资源丰富,旅游发展已成为其重构的重要驱动。本研究以景区依托型民族村寨普者黑仙人洞村为案例,采用田野调查、深度访谈、参与式观察等方法,探究旅游促进民族村寨重构的过程与机制。研究表明:(1)旅游驱动下,仙人洞村发展经历了探索起步、加速转型、系统重构3个阶段。(2)传统农渔业向观光游憩、文化体验、休闲度假等旅游功能转型,带动村民生计方式多元化和村寨产业结构升级,进而促进了乡村经济重构;旅游产业发展促进了生产、生活、生态空间的保护与景观化利用,加速了“三生空间”的复合化利用和融合发展,促进了乡村空间重构;旅游产业发展推动了乡村治理主体多元化,促进了村民参与乡村治理积极性的提升,以血缘和熟人社会关系为基础的传统自治体系向以业缘和制度为核心的现代“三治”体系转变。(3)旅游促进民族村寨发展的目标提升、动力激发、要素整合、社区参与和规范约束,进而形成价值愿景更新、核心动力转换、发展要素整合、参与主体拓展、失序调控优化的良性循环机制,推动乡村经济、空间、社会系统重构。

关键词: 乡村旅游, 乡村重构, 演进过程, 驱动机制, 民族村寨, 仙人洞村

Abstract:

Ethnic villages are rich in tourism resources, such as culture and ecology, and tourism development has become an important driver of their reconstruction. Taking Puzhihei Xianrendong Village as a case, this paper explores the process and mechanism of tourism promoting the reconstruction of ethnic villages by using the methods of fieldwork, in-depth interview and participatory observation. The research indicates that: (1) driven by tourism, the development of Xianrendong Village has gone through three stages: exploration, accelerated transformation and system reconstruction. (2) The transformation of traditional agriculture and fishery to tourism functions such as sightseeing and recreation, cultural experience and leisure vacation has led to the diversification of villagers’ livelihood and the upgrading of village industrial structure, thus promoting the reconstruction of rural economy; the development of tourism industry promotes the protection and landscape utilization of production, living and ecological space, accelerates the compound utilization and integrated development of “production-living-ecology space”, and promotes the reconstruction of rural space. The development of tourism industry has promoted the diversification of rural governance subjects and improved the enthusiasm of villagers to participate in rural governance. The traditional self-governance system based on the social relations of bloodline and acquaintances has transformed to the modern “three-governance” system with the core of the business relationship and system. (3) Tourism promotes the goal enhancement, motivation stimulation, factor integration, community participation and normative restriction in the development of ethnic villages, and then forms a virtuous circle mechanism of value vision renewal, core motivation transformation, development factors integration, expansion of participants, optimization of out-of-order regulation, and promotes the reconstruction of rural economy, space, and social systems.

Key words: rural tourism, rural reconstruction, evolutionary process, driving mechanism, ethnic villages, Xianrendong Village