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    Theoretical discussion and dynamic evaluation of the “spatial equilibrium” evolution of tourism ecosystem: A case study of four world natural heritage sites in Guizhou
    Yang Chunyu, Hong Huanzhou, You Biying, Chen Ziyuan
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (3): 359-379.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20230035
    Abstract257)   HTML37)    PDF (7295KB)(177)      

    Scientific measurement and examination of the “spatial equilibrium” evolution of tourism ecosystem has important theoretical and practical value for promoting the coordinated and sustainable development of tourism economy and ecological environment in world natural heritage sites. Based on the paradigm of system science and axiomatic thinking, this study attempts to construct the connotation, characteristics and axiomatic definition of “spatial equilibrium” evolution of tourism ecosystem. Taking four world natural heritage sites in Guizhou as research samples, the evolution and influencing factors of “spatial equilibrium” of tourism ecosystem were analyzed by using system dynamics (SD) model, pressure-state-response (PSR) model, entropy weight method and geographical detector. The study found that: (1) The evolution of " spatial equilibrium " of tourism ecosystem refers to the ideal state in which the regional tourism ecosystem acts on the whole through its own positive and negative feedback when it is disturbed by local and affordable disturbances, and regulates and compensates through the system regulation mechanism, and finally forms a benign interaction between tourism development and regional nature, culture and human living environment. (2) The basic characteristics of “spatial equilibrium” of tourism ecosystem are relativity and dynamics, short-term “oscillation” and long-term “cycle”. (3) Through the improved axiomatic definition of tourism ecosystem “spatial equilibrium” evolution, three evolutionary states of tourism ecosystem “spatial equilibrium” can be deduced, including equilibrium state, overload state and lag state. (4) From 2000 to 2020, the evolution and development of “spatial equilibrium” of tourism ecosystem in the four case areas showed different spatial and temporal evolution characteristics, regional differences and patterns. (5) The level of tourism pressure, the level of tourism economy, the state of tourism environment and the regulation of tourism policy are the common influencing factors of the evolution of “spatial equilibrium” of tourism ecosystem. Among them, the level of tourism economy is the primary factor in each case and year. The level of tourism pressure and the state of tourism environment have decreased their influence over time, and the influence of tourism policy regulation has gradually increased.

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    The implementation of the Tourism Law of the People’s Republic of China: Retrospect and prospect
    Song Changyao, Li Xinjian, Wang Xuefeng, Zhang Hui, Song Rui, Zheng Bowei, Xie Chaowu, Tang Chengcai, Ning Zhizhong, Su Lujun, Shen Haien
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (2): 183-205.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20230041
    Abstract169)   HTML9)    PDF (994KB)(183)      

    The Tourism Law of the People’s Republic of China (referred to as the Tourism Law) is a comprehensive legislation that integrates the promotion law, the supervision law, and the transaction law, which makes basic institutional arrangement to ensure and promote the standardized and efficient operation of the tourism industry. Taking the 10th anniversary of the implementation of the Tourism Law as an opportunity, this article starts from the main chapters of the Tourism Law, discusses the new situation and new business forms, the deepening of three-dimensional supervision and special projects, the promotion of planning and the standardi-zation of tourism attractions, the guarantee of tourists’ wellbeing and the way of private law reform, and then puts forward suggestions on future directions for the revision of the Tourism Law. The paper suggests that: (1) the comprehensive leveraging mechanism of tourism needs to be optimized urgently. It is required to increase the interpretation of tourism rights, promote the transformation of legislative spirit towards collaborative development, strengthen attention and guidance to new business formats, and improve relevant supporting and implementation rules. We need to adhere to the principle of inclusiveness and prudence, and closely monitor the development of new tourism formats. (2) It is necessary to strengthen and optimize the multi-dimensional supervision of tourism from the entire process, all-round, multi-body, multi-modality and multi-discipline; to deepen tourism safety supervision, and further clarify the safety supervision responsibilities of tourism administrative departments and other departments concerned, the governance system for high-risk tourism projects, and the safety responsibilities of online tourism operators; to strengthen the supervision of tourism ecological impact. (3) It is required to optimize the formulation system of special tourism planning and establish the principle of adapting tourism land to national land classification. (4) It is necessary to study and formulate the regulations on tourism attractions to solve issues such as licensing of tourism resources development, legal procedures for tourism attractions opening up, and responsibility boundaries of tourism attractions. (5) It is necessary to establish a legal guarantee to meet the needs of tourists for a better life and safeguard their sense of happiness from the perspectives of tourist destinations, tourism operators, tourism practitioners, and tourists. (6) It is urgent to explore and solve the problems of weak operability, poor development and excessive localization of tourism private law from the direction of standardization, soft law configuration and internationalization.

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    The theoretical logic, practical challenges and research framework of promoting common prosperity by rural tourism in the new era
    Sun Jiuxia, Wang Shujia
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (2): 206-221.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20230002
    Abstract168)   HTML21)    PDF (3318KB)(277)      

    Rural revitalization is the inevitable requirement and path to achieving common prosperity. Rural tourism has become one of the most shining paths to promote the realization of common prosperity in rural areas. Theoretically, the institutional mission of Chinese society and people’s yearning for a better life have become the motivation for contemporary China to explore the path of promoting the common prosperity by rural tourism. The large-scale continuous tourism flow from the city to the countryside has become the driving medium, and the interaction of rural tourism has contributed to the common prosperity of urban and rural residents’ material and spirit, which is the core reaction of the promoting path. However, rural tourism is still faced with five practical challenges in promoting common prosperity: the alienation of rural landscape, the low economic benefits, the lag of spiritual development, the enlargement of the gap between the rich and the poor, and the lack of sustainability. Therefore, rural tourism research needs to switch to a systematic perspective that covers a larger geographical scale of city and township, encompasses the dual connotation of common affluence. Based on the urban-rural geographic space connected by rural tourism flow and the front stage and back stage divided by rural tourism interaction, this study tries to take circular reaction as the main axis and “input-transformation-output-feedback” as the tool to explore the research framework of rural tourism promoting common prosperity. The framework includes three modules: core research question domain, extended research question domain, and research means, to promote the theoretical and practical development of rural tourism promoting common prosperity in the future.

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    Construction and empirical test of the index system for assessing the tourism value of industrial heritage: A case study of Northeast China
    Liu Yanxiao, Song Yang, Ma Meina, Li Ruishi
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (2): 293-304.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20220086
    Abstract159)   HTML1)    PDF (2143KB)(195)      

    Industrial heritage has become an increasingly attractive new tourism resource with its unique tourism value, and it is an important basis for scientific guidance of industrial heritage inheritance and utilization to build an index system for industrial heritage tourism value assessment. Based on the literature analysis, we propose a framework of components and index system for industrial heritage tourism value assessment, and we use 22 national industrial heritages in Northeast China as an example for measurement and verification. The results show that: (1) Industrial heritage tourism value assessment components include inherent value, market value, and environmental factors; inherent value is the intrinsic value of industrial heritage, market value is the external tourism development value, environmental factors are the constraints of tourism development, and the components interact with each other. (2) Industrial heritage tourism value assessment index system includes 3 criterion layers of inherent value, market value, and environmental factors and 14 specific indicators such as recreation value, location degree, and pollution degree. The industrial heritage tourism value is obtained through the expert evaluation method, entropy method, and comprehensive index method. (3) The 22 national industrial heritage tourism values in Northeast China are relatively consistent with the current situation and actual situation of the industrial heritage development. The index system follows the concept and connotation of industrial heritage as a tourism resource, and highlights its tourism value. It is significant to provide theoretical support for the formulation of national industrial heritage tourism value assessment standards and provide decision-making reference for the timing and grade arrangement of industrial heritage tourism development and utilization.

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    Rescue the hollowed-out area through industrial heritage tourism: Implications from the practice in Japan’s Sorachi Industrial Area
    Zhang Yixin, Liu Jian, Du Lizhu, Nomura Rie, Yan Shurui
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (2): 342-355.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20220099
    Abstract149)   HTML3)    PDF (11006KB)(73)      

    Hollowing-out phenomena such as population loss and space idleness in traditional industrial cities are a worldwide issue. Based on literature analysis and field investigation, this paper summarizes the practical experience of Japan’s largest industrial zone-Hokkaido Sorachi Industrial Area, which uses industrial heritage tourism to combat with the challenge of hollowing out: applying the theory of “attraction-feedback” to guide the development of heritage tourism and overall revitalization plan of the hollowed-out industrial zone; creating industrial heritage tourist attractions to enhance the attractiveness of hollowed industrial areas and promote economic recovery; organizing industrial heritage-themed art activities and various resettlement projects to slow down the trend of population hollowing in shrinking industrial areas; excavating and shaping industrial cultural characteristics to promote community and tourists’ cultural identity to the hollowed industrial zone; inviting tourists to participate in the environmental transformation to promote the urban renewal of the hollowed industrial zone. This paper argued that, with the improvement of industrialization and the transformation of industrial technology, the number of hollow-out areas such as China’s old industrial bases and resource-exhausted cities continues to increase. In this regard, it is necessary to gather multiple forces to speed up the identification of industrial heritage and the construction of the system, and scientifically formulate the renewal planning of hollowed industrial areas; determine the theme and development mode of industrial heritage tourism development according to local conditions, enhance the attractiveness of the holloweded industrial zone to promote economic recovery; pay attention to the excavation of local cultural characteristics, innovate industrial heritage tourism projects, and continuously strengthen the cultural identity and cohesion of the hollowed industrial zone, to promote the protection, renewal and utilization of the heritage in hollow-out industrial areas.

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    Analysis of the tourism destination image in short-form videos: A case study of Wuzhen on the Douyin platform
    Lu Wenbin, Zhong Shi’en, Lyu Tian, Zhang Chuyi
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (4): 570-584.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20230067
    Abstract148)   HTML20)    PDF (4881KB)(103)      

    In the era of mobile internet, there is a new competitive pattern and trend in short-form video marketing among tourism destinations. However, there has not been a systematic investigation on how short-form videos produce and market the tourism destination images. Starting from the meaning of short videos to people's life experience and existence, this paper took Wuzhen as an example, selected 8 popular short-form videos (4 official videos and 4 influencer videos) on the Douyin platform, and used comprehensive methods including netnography and field survey to analyze the thematic characteristics of Wuzhen’s tourism destination images in short-form videos. The results indicate that: (1) In terms of constituent elements of the tourism destination images, both official videos and influencer videos highly emphasize the outstanding universal value (OUV) of Wuzhen’s heritage value, natural ecological environment, and humanistic connotations. Besides that, the official videos also incorporate the nostalgic feeling of “home”. (2) In terms of thematic significance of the tourism destination images, Wuzhen is characterized as a place with three meanings, the taohuayuan (literally, peach blossom spring) — an ideal and utopic land of peace away from the turmoil of the world; the unique cultural “alien space”, and the “sacred nostalgic place” that allows people to calm down. (3) In terms of the production mechanism of the destination image, the official video emphasizes the “constructed authenticity”, and its anchor point is “beauty”; while the influencer video emphasizes the “objective authenticity”, and its anchor point is “truth”. This study provides a feasible analytical framework of “constituent elements + thematic meaning + authenticity” for video image data analysis: frame should be seen as the analysis unit; the conclusions should be interpreted around its thematic significance in the sense of being; and authenticity is the fundamental topic that cannot be avoided in video image data analysis. This study also points out that compared with the official channels, tourism managers need to pay attention to the value and role of internet influencers in contemporary short-form video tourism marketing.

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    Spatial distribution of China’s industrial heritage and selection of sustainable tourism development model
    Ma Mengyao, Tang Jianxiong
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (2): 279-292.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20220079
    Abstract142)   HTML9)    PDF (5819KB)(81)      

    Industrial heritage, known as “nostalgic landscape”, is the core resource and important foundation for the development of industrial tourism. How to choose a suitable sustainable development model for industrial heritage tourism and make industrial heritage “live” through tourism has become an urgent issue in the sustainable development of industrial heritage. This paper takes five batches of industrial heritage released by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology as the research objects, and studies the spatial distribution of industrial heritage in China, the influencing factors of industrial heritage tourism development and the sustainable development model of industrial heritage tourism. The study found that: (1) The industrial heritage exhibits a significant agglomeration in space, and the agglomeration centers mainly evolve between the urban agglomerations of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta and Chengdu-Chongqing, agglomerating southwest towards northeast. The spatial distribution of cold and hot spots of the industrial heritage displays a clear core-edge structure centered on Jiangsu, Henan, and Shaanxi. The cold spots are mainly distributed in Tibet and Xinjiang in the west, and Guangdong and Hainan in the east. (2) The results of geographic detectors show that the main influencing factors of industrial heritage tourism development are tourism resource endowment, tourism development level, cultural industry development level and online attention of industrial tourism. The ranking of the explanatory power of the four main influencing factors is: cultural industry development level>tourism resource endowment>tourism development level>industrial tourism network attention. (3) Based on the detection results of the influencing factors of industrial heritage tourism development, we refined four sustainable development models: ecologicalization, urbanization, industrialization and networking.

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    Traumatic memory of industrial heritage and its mechanism for community cultural identity: A case study of Tiexi District, Shenyang
    Liu Lihua, He Jun
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (2): 316-328.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20220082
    Abstract138)   HTML3)    PDF (1318KB)(143)      

    In the current industrial heritage movement, heritages have gradually become a new type of consumer enclave or monumental industrial holy site that is dis-embedded from the development of heritage communities. The community is the primary environment of a heritage, and the emotional relationship between the community and a heritage's history, memory, knowledge and identity constitutes an important challenge to the conservation, utilization and sustainable development of a heritage. From the theoretical perspective of traumatic memory, based on a comprehensive analysis of factory records of state-owned large-scale industrial enterprises, network texts, and interview texts of workers, this paper aims to reveal the mechanism of traumatic memory affecting community identity and heritage conservation in Tiexi District of Shenyang. It is found that the lack of understanding of the heritage’s emotional value in the process of industrial heritage conservation and the lack of interaction with the community are reasons for the community to treat the industrial heritage as a foreign culture. Influenced by the environment, body and cultural trauma, the community forms the traumatic memory of the heritage, which makes the meaning of the heritage site reconstructed and become a “love-hate” painful place. As an important factor affecting community industrial cultural identity, traumatic memory will limit community participation and action in heritage conservation. This paper argues that the contradictory and detrimental features of industrial heritage should be recognized, and envisaged, presented and responded to; We should value the identity of community as the primary environment of heritage and rebuild the relationship between community and heritage; Through oral history, witness literature, collective narration, tourism exhibition and other ways, trauma can be declared and fully explained, so as to establish the connection between the past and the present, thus the “victims” can depart from the memory dilemma and form a heritage identity. This will help the industrial heritage grow into the common heritage of the society, and achieve the sustainable development of heritage conservation and utilization through the collaboration of community and power, capital, and professional knowledge.

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    The spatiotemporal pattern and evolving features of allometric relationship between regional economy and tourism development in the Yangtze River Basin
    Ma Xiaobin, Zhang Jinhe, Sun Yi, Zhou Leying, Wang Peijia
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (2): 237-251.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20230012
    Abstract137)   HTML8)    PDF (6210KB)(97)      

    The relationship between regional economy and tourism development is a key issue in the scientific interpretation of quality tourism economic development. Taking the Yangtze River Basin as the research object, this study constructs an allometric growth model of regional economy-tourism scale and explores the spatiotemporal correlation characteristics and allometric growth level transition process of regional economy-tourism scale from 2010 to 2019 using exploratory spatial analysis methods. The results show that: (1) The regional economy and tourism scale in the Yangtze River Basin show a trend of ‘high in the southeast and low in the northwest’, and their spatiotemporal correlation indicates a temporal stability and spatial heterogeneity. There are inter-basin differences and intra-basin differences in the upper, middle and lower reaches. (2) The longitudinal (time) scale factor of the regional economy-tourism scale in the Yangtze River Basin shows a fluctuating trend of first rising and then falling. The allometric growth relationship is dominated by the regional economy growing faster than tourism. Horizontally (space), positive allometry dominates overall. The evolution of allometric growth level has the characteristics of ‘overall stability with regional fluctuations’, with greater changes in the upper and middle reaches and more stability in the lower reaches. (3) The change in allometric growth level of regional economy-tourism scale in Yangtze River Basin is mainly characterized by upward transforming from negative to positive allometry levels. Tourism development has a significant promoting effect on regional and economy for most areas. The allometric relationship between regional economy-tourism scale reveals complex internal connections between tourism and economic development, providing theoretical support for achieving high-quality development of river basin tourism economy.

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    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (2): 356-357.  
    Abstract132)   HTML16)    PDF (320KB)(144)      
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    Research on the dimensions of the place meaning of industrial heritage sites as tourist destinations:An inquiry from the tourists’ perspective
    Wang Yue, Wang Qiuju
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (2): 305-315.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20220078
    Abstract127)   HTML8)    PDF (1644KB)(104)      

    Place meaning reflects “the value and significance of the environment to the individual”. The transformation of industrial heritage sites into tourist destination brings about the change of the original place meaning. This paper takes the Beamish Museum as the research object and uses tourists’ comments from Tripadvisor as the research text. Informed by the constructive grounded theory, the research adopts the coding technique to identify the dimensions of the place meaning of the industrial heritage site, and to construct the dimension model of the place meaning. The study found that the place meaning of industrial heritage sites is formed from three interactive levels of “self”, “society” and “environment”, and the place meaning is composed of inherent material meaning, instrumental significance, social and cultural meaning and identity expressive meaning from the outside to the inside. This paper constructs the model of place meaning of industrial heritage sites and provides support for the theoretical research and managerial practices of industrial heritage sites in the future.

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    The application and prospect of industrial geography in the industrial heritage tourism practices and researches
    Ma Li, Gong Zhongjie, Chen Linlin
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (2): 268-278.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20220020
    Abstract123)   HTML8)    PDF (4005KB)(116)      

    As a tourism form relying on the material and cultural heritages of regional industrial activities, industrial heritage tourism is deeply affected by the spatial layout, production and organization pattern of industrial activities. Industrial geography has also become an important discipline basis for the practices and researches of industrial heritage tourism on the resources distribution, development mode, and spatial organization. Based on the study of spatial layout features of state industrial heritage projects in China, this paper demonstrates the main factors influencing the distribution of industrial heritage. This paper argues that the industrial location theory studies the spatial layout and scientific mechanism of industrial activities from the perspective of theory and practice, which can provide theoretical support for understanding and analyzing the spatial layout of industrial heritage. Industrial sector geography focuses on the study of the production and spatial distribution characteristics, production organization mode and location characteristics of different industrial sectors, which can provide a theoretical basis for understanding the resource form and development mode of industrial heritage. Regional industrial geography, which focuses on the close relationship between industrial development and regional socio-economic elements and spatial organization, will provide an important theoretical basis for the research on the value mining, development and protection mode of industrial heritage, as well as the interactive relationship between industrial heritage development and urban and regional development. Finally, from the perspective of industrial geography theory and method innovation, this paper put forward four scientific questions to be concerned of industrial heritage tourism research as follows: focusing on the research on the spatial distribution of industrial heritage tourism resources and its influencing factors, studying the tourism developing mode of industrial heritage resources based on the characteristics of regional industrial development, paying attention to the interaction between industrial form of industrial heritage tourism and regional economic development; and researching integrated development mechanism of industrial heritage tourism resources and regional tourism industry.

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    Does the development of rural hot spring resources promote “neighborhood common prosperity”?
    Lin Mingshui, Li Wei, Chen Yuping, Yu Hu, Qiu Jinlian
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (2): 222-236.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20220154
    Abstract123)   HTML10)    PDF (8456KB)(104)      

    Rural hot spring resource development accelerates the industrial transformation and development of hot spring villages, and promotes the flow of capital, technology and talents between regions. We took 173 hot spring villages and 21 neighboring non-hot spring villages in Fujian Province as research objects, adopted the attributes of hot spring enterprises and nighttime lighting data, constructed a hot spring resource development and village economic development index, and employed spatial analysis methods to quantitatively study the spillover effects of rural hot spring resource development on village economic development, refining the model of rural hot spring resource development to promote “neighborhood common prosperity”. The results show that (1) rural hot spring resource development has a positive impact on the economic development of hot spring villages, and every 1% increase in the level of rural hot spring resource development will raise the level of that in neighboring hot spring villages by 0.437%. (2) Rural hot spring resource development has a significant spatial spillover effect on neighboring hot spring villages, which includes joint spillover and single spillover, and joint spillover effect is more likely to form in villages with higher levels of hot spring resource development. (3) The development of rural hot spring resources drives the integrated development of the three industries in the countryside through the spillover effect and symbiotic development, and improves the economic development of the surrounding hot spring villages and neighboring non-hot spring villages through the “demonstration effect” and “trickle-down effect”, thus realize the “neighborhood common prosperity”. In the future, we can promote the development of rural resources by strengthening the demonstration effect, extending the industrial chain, and promoting the flow of production factors, so as to diversify the path of “neighborhood common prosperity” in regional villages and realize rural revitalization and common prosperity.

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    How to construct national identity based on cultural heritages? A case study of the Grand Canal National Culture Park
    An Zhuolin, Zhou Shangyi
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (3): 408-419.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20220160
    Abstract117)   HTML17)    PDF (1688KB)(150)      

    One of the purposes of national culture parks in China is to construct national identity. Based on the concepts of superorganism culture and organism culture, in conjunction with Heidegger’s concept of “Entbergung”, this paper analyzes how people’s identities on cultural heritages in the Grand Canal National Culture Park transform into their national identities by using the method of focus group and phenomenological reflection. Two conclusions are drawn from this study. Firstly, the national identity in the promotion of Grand Canal Cultural Heritages is a holistic culture, super-organic culture. Because of the “absence” of history and the “absence” of life, people are in the situations of “Verborgenheit”, and are obscured from understanding the cultural significance of cultural heritage. Secondly, this framework based on phenomenology can guide people to connect the superorganistic national identities with themselves in two ways: introspection based on body, and introspection based on rationality. On the basis of the two kinds of introspection, and by the processes of “Entbergung”, people can derive national cultural symbols that can be understood and identified. The finding of this paper provides implications for how to shape national identities in the constructions of national culture parks.

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    The reform of cultural heritage protection system under the background of the National Cultural Park construction
    Zou Tongqian, Qiu Ziyi, Miao Hui
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (3): 394-407.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20230001
    Abstract114)   HTML13)    PDF (6770KB)(166)      

    Building high standard protection system of cultural heritage is necessary to implement the Strategy of Building China into a strong Socialist Culture Country. The birth of the National Cultural Park provides an opportunity to optimize cultural heritage protection system. Based on the current development of cultural heritage protection system, this paper analyzes the key causes and mechanisms of its dysfunction role through literature review, and explores the reform path of the cultural heritage protection system based on domestic and foreign experience. The findings are as follows: (1) The development process of our cultural heritage protection system can be divided into three stages: cultural relics preservation centered stage, multi-type protection system forming stage, and upgrading and reform stage. (2) Due to the lack of unified top-level design, the cultural heritage protection system has some limitations in the protection concept, type system, management system and guarantee mechanism, which seriously affects the protection effect. (3) In order to improve the governance efficiency of the cultural heritage protection system, four reform paths are proposed: Reshape the protection concept based on the principles of integrity protection and compatibility; Reconstructing classification system with the National Cultural Park as the leader; Optimize the management system on the premise of unifying the organization; Upgrade the protection system with the support of professional talents, finance and law. This paper provides the direction and suggestions for improving the top-level design of the cultural heritage protection system.

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    Spatial and temporal evolution of tourism industry resilience in the Chang-Zhu-Tan-Rim city clusters
    Wang Jingyi, Li Jiaolong, He Tianxiang, Deng Yan
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (2): 252-267.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20220157
    Abstract108)   HTML2)    PDF (3922KB)(80)      

    The tourism industry has been greatly impacted by the epidemic, and the resilience, rebound and innovation of the tourism industry have received wide attention from the public. Based on the resilience theory and system theory, a comprehensive evaluation index system of tourism industry resilience was constructed from four aspects: economy, society, ecology and tourism. Entropy method, Delphi method, new barrel model, kernel density estimation, spatial autocorrelation index and other methods were used in this research to evaluate the spatio-temporal evolution characteristics of tourism industry resilience in the Chang-Zhu-Tan-Rim city clusters from 2011 to 2020. The results show that: (1) In the period of the research, the resilience level of the tourism industry in the study area is generally low and shows a trend of fluctuating upward. Resilience differs greatly between the subsystems, among which the tourism and economic subsystems have higher resilience and the ecological subsystem has the lowest resilience. (2) In terms of spatial pattern, the toughness of the tourism industry in the city clusters shows a steady pattern of "high in the east and low in the west", with a trend of club convergence. (3) Within the city clusters, there is a significant difference in the resilience of the tourism industry in the eight cities, and the spatial negative correlation is significant. The siphon effect of Changsha on the development of the tourism industry in the city clusters is weakened, while the radiation effect on the neighboring cities is enhanced. It is suggested to enhance the diversity and richness of tourism resources and the quality of tourism elements, develop new forms of tourism business and strengthen regional coordination and development cooperation mechanism, so as to promote the high-quality development of regional tourism.

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    The evolution of animal landscape and practice of nature education in urban zoos: A case study of Guangzhou Zoo
    Wen Shixian, Chen Yuyan, Liao Jianhao
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (3): 526-539.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20220163
    Abstract107)   HTML8)    PDF (10453KB)(43)      

    Zoo is an important tourism space in urban society, as well as a key base for animal protection and nature education. In recent years, animal welfare and ethical issues in zoos have attracted a wide social attention. Taking Guangzhou Zoo as a case study, this paper uses both field survey and textual analysis to explore the evolution of animal landscapes and nature education practices in urban zoos, using “animal landscape” as a theoretical framework. The study finds that urban zoos have evolved from ornamental animal landscapes of curiosity and mobility, to recreational animal landscapes of expansion and intimacy, and to ecological animal landscapes of enrichment and science, which was driven by the remarkable trend of humans’ increasing appreciation and respect for the nature and affordance of animals. Humans are not the only producers of animal landscapes, dynamic and subjective nature of animals was presented throughout the evolution. Animals participate in the production of animal landscapes according to the conditions of existence set by humans, and their bodies, habits and behaviors profoundly influence the form and level of nature education. The valuing of animal conservation and ethical issues are conducive to the production of higher order animal landscapes, thus contributing to the further development of nature education.

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    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (2): 359-359.  
    Abstract104)   HTML8)    PDF (4339KB)(24)      
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    What changes have tourists perceived of World Heritage Site after the successful inscription on the World Heritage List? An analysis of UGC web data of Quanzhou
    Zheng Qunming, Hong Xinyan
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (3): 438-452.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20230008
    Abstract102)   HTML9)    PDF (4804KB)(90)      

    Tourists are important witnesses and experiencers in the process of inscribing a destination as a world cultural heritage. Based on cognitive-emotional theory, user generated content (UGC) web text data in Quanzhou, content analysis methods were used to explore the differences in tourists’ perceptions of the images of World Heritage Sites before and after the successful inscription, and to reveal the impact mechanism of the inscription on tourists’ perceived images. The study found that: compared with the pre-inscription period, tourists’ perceptions of cultural values such as history, religion and art deepened after the inscription, yet their perceptions of natural attractions weakened; tourists’ perception of the image of World Heritage Sites became clearer, and the original brand and status of World Heritage Sites are more recognized; though tourists’ emotional attitudes toward World Heritage Sites has changed not much in general after the inscription, they have higher expectations for the cultural status, service quality, tourism environment, urban development of the World Heritage Sites. Cultural destinations can trigger the media’s external drive and cultural internal drive through the application, which can promote the change of tourists’ cognitive image and emotional image of the destination, and then promote the strengthening of tourists’ brand identity, service value identity, cultural identity, local identity and emotional identity. The analysis of the impact of the successful inscription on tourists' perceived image can provide a reference for the construction and enhancement of tourism images of similar destinations.

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    Discourse analysis on the construction of internet-famous tourist street: The case of Nimman Road in Chiang Mai
    Zeng Xiaoyin, Gao Jun
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (4): 555-569.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20230058
    Abstract97)   HTML18)    PDF (9496KB)(42)      

    In the era of the internet and new media, the construction of internet-famous streets has become an important way to enhance the attractiveness of urban tourism. Based on agenda-setting theory, we chose Nimman Road, a typical internet-famous tourist street in Chiang Mai, Thailand as a case. This study collected second-hand data from the official websites of the Tourism Authority of Thailand, and the Mafengwo tourism platform (including 23 travel blogs). Interviews with five tourists who had visited Nimman Road were also conducted to complement and validate the secondary data. Discourse analysis was performed to analyze the discourse practice of the image construction of internet-famous tourist street. The results show that (1) the Thai official website, Chinese platform and tourists jointly construct Nimman Road as a fashionable, elite-style and youth-friendly internet-famous tourist street. (2) The official describes Nimman Road as a fashionable and creative street, facing a relatively generalized audience; the tourism platform focuses on a specific customer group of youth and expresses directly Nimman Road as a place for young people to visit; the tourists modify their cognition through personal experience and actively express their true feelings on the internet. Their feedback plays a role in the construction process of the internet-famous street, providing proof of reverse agenda setting. (3) The symbols of Nimman Road, such as creativity, and elite-style, are shaped by the official discourse, reinforced by the platform discourse, and accepted by tourists to a certain extent. The discourses are influenced by the development process and features of the street, the precision of tourism distribution in the time of social media, and the social life in the transitional period.

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    Spatiotemporal evolution and influencing mechanisms of the agglomeration field in tourist towns in Xiangxi region driven by transportation
    Tan Jiaxin, Ma Xuefeng, Wang Kai
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (3): 380-393.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20230042
    Abstract96)   HTML11)    PDF (7626KB)(106)      

    Transportation infrastructure plays a crucial role in the development of integrated regional tourism, significantly influencing the formation and optimization of the agglomeration pattern of tourism towns. By employing composite location entropy and weighted average travel time, the study measures the agglomeration level and transport accessibility of tourist towns in the Xiangxi region from 2000 to 2019. Utilizing an improved gravity model and spatial econometric model, the research explores the spatiotemporal evolution characteristics and influencing mechanisms of agglomeration intensity in typical regions of tourism development. The results show that: (1) During the study period, the agglomeration intensity and transport accessibility in the Xiangxi region exhibited a continuous upward trend, with the optimal transport radiation range within 1.6 hours. (2) The spatial pattern of agglomeration intensity in tourism towns underwent a dynamic transformation from a “unidirectional dominance” to a “bidirectional interactive” pattern, manifested by the emergence of three major high-intensity areas led by Wulingyuan, Yongding, and Fenghuang, shifting away from the dominance of Fenghuang. Meanwhile, transport accessibility demonstrated an irregular concentric structure spreading along the north-south axis, with the central region as the center. (3) Under the comprehensive influence of resource endowment, industrial structure, and living environment conditions, the improvement of transportation conditions brings about the compression effect of space and time, facilitating the agglomeration of population, land, and industries in tourist towns. This, in turn, enhances local tourism economic efficiency and increases the opportunity cost of resource utilization, leading to a spatial structural transformation from “monocentric” to “polycentric” pattern.

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    Research on production mechanism of educational tourism products in nature reserves: A case study of Danxia Mountain, Guangdong Province
    Zhou Tongxin, Liu Jun
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (3): 466-482.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20220165
    Abstract86)   HTML11)    PDF (2470KB)(97)      

    Public education is an essential obligation of nature reserves. However, nature reserves in China are facing an insufficiency in the development of educational tourism products. A qualitative research method is used to explore the production mechanism of educational tourism product in Danxia Mountain, Guangdong Province. The research shows that: (1) The procedure of producing educational tourism products are divided into four steps: knowledge production, knowledge transformation, curriculum arrangement and design and operation of the educational tourism products. The formulation of this procedure is based on multiple internal and external factors such as the resources of the nature reserves, the internal logic of knowledge production and transformation, market demand and various policies and standards. (2) Under the guidance of public education, a production pattern has formed in Danxia Mountain, which dominated with the production of educational tourism products related to natural science knowledge and facilitated with the production of educational tourism products related to practical knowledge. (3) A structure of “core-surrounding-periphery” is formed in educational tourism industry. The interaction and cooperation among the different circles support the production of higher quality products, and contribute to the sustainable improvement of local educational tourism industry. The research shows that the logic of knowledge production and transformation, relevant policy standards, and the ability of the participants make the educational tourism product unique from other kinds of tourism products, Such uniqueness are the inner forces for the formation of the production mechanism of educational tourism products. This study systematically summarizes the practice of the educational tourism in Danxia Mountain. It helps to reveal the interactive relationship between various elements in the production process, based on the perspective of participants. Futhermore, this artical clarifies the specificity of educational tourism and its structural impact on the tourism industry in the nature reserves.

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    The absence of women workers’ value and influencing factors in the presentation and interpretation of industrial heritage museums: A case study of four textile museums
    Fan Xiaojun, Xu Honggang
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (2): 329-341.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20220125
    Abstract85)   HTML2)    PDF (907KB)(104)      

    Women workers are important participants in industrial production and have a significant impact on industrial production and society life. The value of women workers is the integral element for meaning reconstruction and value expression of industrial heritage usage in tourism development. In this research, data of media information and visitors’ comments of four representative textile museums were collected, then they were used to explore the display features of female workers’ value in the industrial heritage tourism by comparing the information presented at the input and output ends of display and interpretation system. The research found that information transmission of female workers in the textile museum is very limited, indicating the lack of female role, the shortage of content, the simplicity of display forms with the major impacting factors from the static narrative system, the lack of personal awareness and gender perspective, and the limitation of technologies. The significance of heritage lies in value expression and transmission. In this process of constructing the presentation and interpretation of industrial heritages, a tempo dimension should be considered; in respect of content, special value regarding female workers should be further minded; meanwhile, the life scenarios of female workers should be restored, and effects of interaction and participation should be strengthened, with the purpose of showing the contribution of women to the core value of industrial heritage in a general yet authentic manner. As an explorative study on the presentation and interpretation of industrial heritage, this paper advocates scholars and practitioners to value the industrial heritage’s presentation and interpretation and to concern the female group in the development of tourism products.

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    Are you dissatisfied with the crowded destination: A meta-analysis based on 39 studies
    Hu Zhicong, Zou Xiaodan, Cai Xiaomei
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (4): 541-554.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20230094
    Abstract84)   HTML17)    PDF (1335KB)(42)      

    The reality of destination crowding has a long history, and the academic community has long been concerned with theoretical and empirical research on tourist crowding perceptions. However, there has not yet reached consensus on understanding of the role of tourist crowding perceptions in influencing tourist satisfaction, and even contradictory views have emerged. Therefore, the study conducts a meta-analysis of a sample of 39 independent studies to explore the relationship between tourists’ perception of crowding and its dimensions and tourist satisfaction, and focuses on the potential factors affecting the relationship between the two. The results show that (1) both tourist crowding perception and spatial crowding perception have a significant negative effect on tourist satisfaction, but visitor-flow crowding perception has a significant positive effect on tourist satisfaction. However, the correlation between tourist crowding perception/spatial crowding perception/crowd crowding perception and tourist satisfaction is not strong; (2) there is a moderating effect of tourist age and measurement tools in the relationship between tourist crowding perception and tourist satisfaction; (3) tourist gender and sample size cannot significantly affect the relationship between tourist crowding perception and satisfaction. The study used meta-analysis to validate the relationship between tourist crowding perception and its dimensions and tourist satisfaction, and revealed the factors affecting the transformation of tourist crowding perception to tourist satisfaction, which can provide a reference for destinations to formulate crowding management policies.

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    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (2): 360-360.  
    Abstract83)   HTML4)    PDF (228KB)(260)      
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    Study on the assessment method for the sustainability of lake tourism destinations on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau: A relational perspective
    Zhang Xiangju, Zhong Linsheng, Yu Hu
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (4): 621-634.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20220159
    Abstract75)   HTML7)    PDF (2667KB)(28)      

    Lakes are important tourist attractions on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which are very sensitive to environmental changes and human activities. In order to leverage the relationship of ecological protection, community development and tourism development, we established a tourism destination sustainability index system with the fuzzy Delphi method and analytic hierarchy process based on the stakeholder evaluation framework for sustainable ecotourism. Then, the index system was applied to Qinghai Lake and the relationship of “resource-community-tourism” was jointly evaluated by resource managers, community residents and tourists. Finally, a total of 31 indicators of 6 dimensions were obtained. The relationship between resource and communities obtained the highest weight among the three groups, which reflected the resource-dependent characteristics and green development needs of the lake tourism communities on the plateau. The expert group believed that the ecological index selection for plateau lake destinations should attach importance to biodiversity and environmental conservation from the regional ecosystem perspective. The application of the evaluation method in Qinghai Lake shows its applicability and effectiveness. This paper enhances the participation of stakeholders in the index system establishment for relationship evaluation and provides an alternative method for assessing the sustainability of lake destinations on the plateau with insufficient monitoring data. It can provide decision-making support for a coordinated green development of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

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    Socialist river basin ecological civilization with Chinese characteristics in the new era:Conceptual connotation and content framework
    Zhao Bingjian, Yu Qiuyue, Zhang Jianyu, Chen Binsen, Wen Chuanhao
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (4): 585-602.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20230037
    Abstract74)   HTML4)    PDF (3206KB)(46)      

    With the deepening of the concept of “community of life between human and nature”, accelerating the theoretical innovation of river basin ecological civilization is an important task for adhering to and improving socialism with Chinese characteristics. Based on the epochal nature of ecological civilization construction and the specificity of river basins, and taking Xi Jinping’s thought on ecological civilization in the new era as the starting point, this paper intends to put forward the concept of socialist river basin ecological civilization with Chinese characteristics in the new era, and explains the connotation of the concept, the theoretical system, the elemental objects and the practical space involved. The study concludes: (1) socialist river basin ecological civilization with Chinese characteristics in the new era is rooted in Xi Jinping’s thought on ecological civilization, which is an extension of the river basin ecological civilization. It refers to the sum of various spiritual forms and material achievements that achieve high-quality development of the river basin from the perspective of harmonious coexistence and modernization between human and nature. (2) Socialist river basin ecological civilization with Chinese characteristics in the new era takes the concept of “Two Mountains” as its core theory, which is a systematic and interconnected conceptual system. (3) Socialist river basin ecological civilization with Chinese characteristics in the new era is aimed at river basins, pointing to clear elements, including both micro elements of “mountain, river, forest, field, lake, grass and sand”, and macro elements of “upstream and downstream, left and right banks, trunk and tributaries”. These two elements together constitute the “complex basin system” with the unity of object and function. (4) The space targeted by the practice of socialist river basin ecological civilization with Chinese characteristics in the new era follows the division form of production space, living space, and ecological space.

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    The influence of natural connectedness and environmental attitude on children’s wellbeing: The mediating effect of environmental behavior
    Zheng Wenjuan, Zhang Lin
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (3): 510-525.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20220167
    Abstract72)   HTML9)    PDF (1738KB)(188)      

    Based on the theory of attitude-behavior-context, this paper divides the environ- mental attitude into two levels: preservation and utilization, on this basis, we introduce subjective happiness variables, and focus on the mediating effects of environmental behavior on the relationship between natural connectedness and environmental attitude. The results of 332 valid questionnaires analysis showed that there was no significant relationship between children’s attitude to environment utilization and their natural connectedness, environmental behavior and happiness. Natural connectedness and environmental behavior are all precursor factors of children’s happiness. Environmental behavior plays a partial mediating role between natural connectedness and children’s happiness, and environmental behavior plays a complete mediating role between environmental preservation attitude and children’s happiness. Environmental protection attitudes and environmental behavior play a chain mediating role between natural connectedness and children’s happiness. Based on the above conclusions, society, schools and parents should increase the time and opportunities for children’s contact with nature and outdoor activities through environmental education courses and study tours for children, cultivate children’s attitude of environmental protection, enrich children’s ways of contact with nature, enhance children’s sense of happiness. The model and related conclusions in this paper enrich and expand the study of children’s environmental psychology, especially in promoting the study of children’s environmental behavior and children’s wellbeing.

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    Spatial distribution characteristics of the Grand Canal National Cultural Park project and its influencing factors
    Wu Miaomiao, Dai Juncheng, Xie Fan
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (3): 420-437.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20230021
    Abstract72)   HTML9)    PDF (9027KB)(119)      

    Major projects are the key to building and utilizing National Cultural Park well, and also the core carrier of building important symbols of Chinese culture. This paper focuses on the perspective of major projects that are less concerned in the current study of National Cultural Park, analyzes their spatial distribution characteristics by using mathematical statistics and GIS spatial analysis methods, and examines the influencing factors of spatial distribution in combination with Geodetector. The results show that: (1) Major projects of the Grand Canal National Cultural Park show the characteristics of point-axis distribution, with over 80% within the 10 kilometer buffer zone of the canal. (2) The spatial distribution of the project shows the characteristics of “core agglomeration, connected into areas, and belt-shaped distribution”, including the high-density concentration area in Tianjin, the sub-density core area at the southwest border of Anhui and Jiangsu provinces, and three banded distribution areas, namely Hebei District, Tianjin—Rencheng District, Jining City, Shandong Province, Nanle County, Puyang City, Henan Province—Chanhe Hui District, Luoyang City, Henan Province—Yongqiao District, Suzhou City, Anhui Province—Xiuzhou District, Jiaxing City, Zhejiang Province. (3) The spatial distribution of the projects is affected by multiple factors, and the explanatory power is ranked as follows: the proximity of canal cultural heritage > the proportion of tertiary industry > the proximity of canal water system > policy support > the proximity of traffic roads > the level of fiscal revenue > resident population scale. The interactive influence of different influencing factors is greater than that of single influencing factor, and the interaction between the proximity of canal cultural heritage and the proportion of tertiary industry is the strongest. This paper studies major projects from a spatial perspective, exploring the overall spatial layout of National Cultural Park projects and the spatial factors involved in project selection. It deepens the current research on the project system of giant linear cultural heritage management, which is of great significance for optimizing the overall layout of national cultural park projects and promoting coordinated development.

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    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (2): 358-358.  
    Abstract72)   HTML4)    PDF (190KB)(82)      
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    Research on the teaching and learning mechanism of museum study tourism from the perspective of situated cognition and learning theory
    Shao Yichen, Meng Fanqiang
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (3): 494-509.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20220166
    Abstract71)   HTML4)    PDF (2825KB)(167)      

    Museum study tourisms are an important tourism business format as well as a teaching and learning structure. Using semi-structured interviews, non-participatory observations, and significant network text analysis, this article examines the teaching and learning mechanisms in museum study tourism from the perspective of situated cognition and learning theory. According to research, museum study tourism can provide authentic, multi-type, time-space-crossed, and integrative knowledge. The character of museum study tourism allows experiencers to enjoy the full-body experience in composite spatiotemporal contexts and group interaction. These characters will create cognitive channels for the experiencers. Following that, the experiencers of museum study tourism will be initiated with educational intentionality, encouraged to engage in self-constructive learning, promote the generative development of the self, and ultimately optimize cognition and behaviour. This article seeks to examine the internal logic of teaching and learning in museum study tourism, develop a situational teaching and learning mechanism model for museum study tourism, and provide references for the development of museum study tourism products.

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    Embodied generating mechanisms of tourist well-being in river and lake scenarios
    Shao Jiarui, Zhang Lei, Xu Xue, Zhao Min
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (4): 635-648.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20230019
    Abstract71)   HTML6)    PDF (1571KB)(39)      

    Achieving a sense of well-being for tourists contributes to the social well-being of river and lake tourism destinations. Adopting the constructive grounded theory, this paper explores the elements of tourist well-being in river and lake scenarios and its embodied generating mechanisms. The study finds that: (1) Tourist well-being in the river and lake scenarios consists of positive emotion, immersion, social connection, accomplishment, and self-discovery, of which positive emotion, immersion, and social connection are mainly hedonic well-being. In contrast, accomplishment and self-discovery are mainly eudaimonic well-being. (2) The generation of tourists well-being in river and lake scenarios is the result of the dynamic interaction ofthe presence and absence of tourist’s body with the scenarios. The tourists’ present body generates well-being through embodied experiences (multisensory perceptions, body movements or behaviors, situational interactions, memories and associations) in river and lake tourism scenarios. The tourists’ absent body generates well-being expecta-tions and well-being precipitations through interaction with daily and tourist scenarios. (3) There is a bidirectional constructive relationship between the river and lake tourists’ embodied experience and the sense of well-being. The well-being generated by the tourists will prompt the body to interact with the scenarios again to gain embodied experience, which in turn generates a sense of well-being again. The findings of the study have theoretical and practical value for enhancing tourist well-being in the river and lake tourism scenarios.

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    Configuration path analysis of factors influencing subjective well-being of residents in tourist destinations from a livelihood capital perspective
    Deng Meng, Shang Qianlang, Shi Pengfei, Fan Yunshu, Li Mengxue
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (4): 706-720.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20230060
    Abstract68)   HTML4)    PDF (1194KB)(29)      

    Subjective well-being embodies the value kernel of tourism development to promote sustainable livelihoods of residents. This paper constructs an analytical framework and indicator system from the perspective of livelihood capital, and applies fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to explore the complex impact of livelihood capital on residents’ subjective well-being by taking Simolawa Village in Tengchong, Yunnan Province, as a case study, in order to reveal the configuration paths affecting the subjective well-being of residents in tourism sites. The study shows that residents of Simolawa Village generally have higher levels of subjective well-being, with higher satisfaction in environmental aspects and relatively low economic satisfaction; a single dimension of livelihood capital cannot be a necessary condition for enhancing the subjective well-being of residents in tourist destinations, but it has an important impact on subjective well-being, with cultural, psychological, social, and financial capitals, in particular, being the most critical; cultural + psychological + financial capital, cultural + psychological + financial + physical capital, social + cultural + financial capital, the three combinations constitute the main configuration path of factors influencing the subjective well-being of residents in tourist destinations. The study helps to deepen the theoretical knowledge of how tourism can enhance people's well-being and show the attributes of the happiness industry, and provides a basis for decision-making to improve the subjective well-being of residents in tourist destinations.

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    The spatial reconstruction of Anren ancient town: From the perspective of actor network theory
    Lu Song, Liu Junmei, Long Cheng, Zhu Kai, Xu Yuxuan
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (4): 665-678.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20230057
    Abstract66)   HTML7)    PDF (6119KB)(43)      

    Under the double-wheel drive of new urbanization and rural revitalization strategy, suburban townships have become an important spatial reconstruction zone. Adopting the actor network theory, we discuss the spatial reconstruction process and mechanism of Anren “World Cultural and Museum Town”. The results show that: (1) the actors in Anren Ancient Town include human actors such as local government, tourism development companies, art and architecture designers and residents, as well as non-human actors such as cultural relics collection, museum complexes, and rural landscapes. The development of the actor network in Anren Ancient Town has gone through three stages: power capital led, cultural capital led, and economic capital led. (2) In the construction of long-term heterogeneous actor networks, Anren Ancient Town has kept adopting diverse processes of recruitment and mobilization, such as cultural recruitment, educational recruitment, brand linkage, and artistic recruitment, to promote the formation of a dynamic actor network in Anren Ancient Town. (3) Under the background of the double-wheel drive of new urbanization and rural revitalization strategy, the final spatial reconstruction of Anren Ancient Town is mainly manifested as quality consum- ption space, humanistic and aesthetic ecological space and multi-functional production space of the ancient town. While preserving the rural space, the town also reconstructs the rural landscape and forms an inseparable “urban-rural” aesthetic ecosystem with the built-up area of the ancient town.

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    Construction of advanced curriculum model of nature education based on advanced learning theory
    Fang Zhongkai, Luo Fen
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (3): 483-493.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20220164
    Abstract60)   HTML1)    PDF (1265KB)(105)      

    Nature education is an effective method for people to get a better understanding of nature. To ensure that people can deeply understand nature and participate in natural education activities in an orderly manner, a natural education curriculum model is constructed. Based on the analysis of Li Ziqi’s “Lifetime” series of video commentary texts, and based on the theory of learning advancement, this article explores the construction of an advanced nature education curriculum model through the analysis of 3 000 comment texts in case videos. This model starts from the elements and phenomena of rural natural resources, covering advanced dimensions, achievement levels, evaluation tools, and advanced endpoints. The advanced dimension of natural education curriculum is to gradually recognize rural natural resources through audience experience, mapping, correlation, system and integration. The achievement level of nature education curriculum includes the audience’s memory, understanding, application, analysis, evaluation, and creative level. The questionnaire test is an effective evaluation tool, and the test results assist in natural education courses. The improvement of audience ecological concepts and optimization of behavior patterns are the ultimate goals of advancing nature education curriculum. At the same time, there is a corresponding relationship between the advanced dimension in the pattern and the level of achievement. It is suggested that nature education courses should strengthen the natural value of the course theme, strengthen the connection between course content and life, optimize the setting of course scenes, in order to enhance the audience’s recognition of natural values, solve the current dilemma of “natural deficiency” among young people, and promote the high-quality development of nature education courses.

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    The process and mechanism of tourism-driven rural transformation from the perspective of actor network:A case study of Zhuquan Village, Shandong Province
    Yu Wei, Liu Shumin, Wang Min, Zhang Xuebo, Song Jinping
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (4): 679-693.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20230122
    Abstract59)   HTML3)    PDF (6338KB)(34)      

    Tourism-driven rural transformation is a key solution to revitalize the rural areas. Based on the perspective of Actor Network Theory, we analyze the actor composition and translation paths of rural transformation in Zhuquan Villages in Yinan County as a case study, and explore the process and mechanism of multiple actors driving the village transformation from a poor village to one of the most beautiful village in China. The results show that: (1) Multiple key actors such as Yinan County government, planning team and investment developers, together with human or non-human actors such as the Village committee, villagers, bamboo forest and spring, formed during the transformation of Zhuquan village are the subjects of heterogeneous actor network construction. (2) The transformation of Zhuquan Village is characterized by stages, with the initial stage being the construction of a network of actors through administrative recruitment by the county government to ensure the decision of rural tourism. The mid-term planning team coordinated to resolve key differences among different stakeholders in the transformation process and clarify the direction of the transformation of Zhuquan Village. Later on, the investment company developed and operated the tourist attraction through a variety of conscription methods such as capital and land, which realized the coordinated development of the tourist attraction and the construction of the new village and promoted the transformation of the rural village. (3) The transformation process of Zhuquan Village is inseparable from the joint drive of key actors, and the sharing of benefits among multiple actors is a guarantee for the sustainable transformation of the village. The paper analyzes the process of continuous reconstruction of the actor network to drive rural transformation, which can provide useful reference for optimal decision-making on rural transformation at different stages of development.

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    Recreational utilization pattern and influencing factors of large and medium-sized reservoirs in China
    Li Peng, He Yuwen, Gao Yating, Wang Taoli, Wang Shichao, Zhu Jun, Zhao Min
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (4): 603-620.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20230038
    Abstract58)   HTML6)    PDF (10232KB)(28)      

    Recreation is a common trend in the utilization of reservoirs in various countries. Taking 4748 large and medium-sized reservoirs in China in 2022 as the research object, the study analyses the pattern of recreational utilization of reservoirs and its influencing factors at multiple scales. The results show that: (1) There are 636 recreational reservoirs in China, accounting for 13.40% of the total number of large and medium-sized reservoirs; the overall recreation utilization rate is low, and varies significantly among eastern, central and western regions of China, with the utilization rate of 11.14%, 15.60% and 13.05%, respectively; water-related recreation area systems are the dominant type of recreation reservoirs. (2) The number of recreational reservoirs in eastern, central and western regions of China accounts for 24.21%, 41.04% and 34.75%, respectively; except for Shanghai and Tibet, recreational reservoirs are distributed in 29 provincail-level regions, more concentrated in the Hunan, Hubei and Jiangxi provinces of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, and they are distributed in 262 cities out of the 333 prefecture-level cities; 92% of recreational reservoirs are located in areas with precipitation above 400 mm, the Yangtze River basin has the largest number, the river basins in southwest China have the lowest number, and the Huaihe River basin has the densest distribution. (3) The spatial structure is characterized by “one core and one belt”, the one core is Shandong province and the one belt is the band area connected by cities in the Yangtze River basin including Chengdu, Chongqing, Guiyang, Changsha and Nanchang. (4) Economic and social factors are main reasons for the spatial distribution differences in recreational reservoirs, 6 indicators such as the per capita disposable income in urban and rural areas, and fixed-asset investment are significant indicators; natural factors directly affect the formation of resource conditions and indirectly affect the transformation of recreational reservoirs. The study can provide a scientific foundation for improving the level of recreational use of large and medium-sized reservoirs and promoting the ecological protection and governance of important rivers, lakes and reservoirs in China.

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    A review of the research on rafting recreation and its implications: A case of international English periodicals
    Mo Junjie, Hu Jing, Tian Shizheng
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (4): 649-664.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20230020
    Abstract56)   HTML6)    PDF (2332KB)(41)      

    Rafting recreation is one of the forms of ecotourism mainly based on river and lake recreation sports, and rafters, rafting water, rafting industry and rafting environment are the symbiotic subjects constituting the rafting recreation system. This paper uses CiteSpace visualization and analysis software, and draws on the theory of “four-component system of ecotourism”, and then analyzes the relevant research results of Web of Science, and finally reaches the following conclusions: The research on rafting recreation lags behind the practice in general, and there was an obvious discontinuity before the 1990s. The research covers the heterogeneity, motivation, experience perception, physical and mental impacts of rafters, scenic river system, flow rate and water quality, rafting safety management, product development and sustainable development of the industry, and the requirements of facilities and activity control in rafting sites. In general, the research perspective has shifted from focusing on the realization of the single goal of the “four-component” to taking into account the elements, and then to the synergy of multiple goals, but the unidimensional study of the “four-component” needs to be deepened, and the synergistic relationship and interaction mechanism with the external environment of the “four-component” need to be improved. It is suggested that China’s rafting recreation research should learn from existing achievements, further deepen the unidimensional research on the “four-component”, and at the same time strengthen the systematic view of the “people-environment-industry” symbiosis, expand the research on the synergistic mechanism of the “four-component” as well as on the mutual influence between the “four-component” and the external environment, so as to provide scientific references for the development of ecotourism in rivers and lakes, as well as for the construction of river and lake protected area systems.

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    Research on the adaptation of vernacular crafts and their design inheritance mechanism based on morphological theory:A case of upper Yellow River waterwheel
    Zhao Decheng, Wei Wenjin, Liu Jiale
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (3): 453-465.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20230022
    Abstract50)   HTML4)    PDF (7276KB)(95)      

    Vernacular crafts contain the adaptation characteristics of harmonious coexistence between humans and nature, which have multiple values for the present and future social development. This study is based on the environmental adaptation theory of bio-morphology, analyzing the morphological evolution of typical traditional farming implements in the upper Yellow River reaches in an ephemeral and co-evolutionary fashion. From the concept of anthropology and bio-morphological adaptation to the environment, the evolutionary process of the Yellow River waterwheel has been sorted out chronologically, the regional causes have been analyzed co-temporally, and discuss the characteristics of vernacular crafts, as well as their design inheritance, evolution, and development. This study indicated that: (1) Morphology is the result of regional adaptation. The form of the waterwheel in the upper reaches of the Yellow River has passed through the southwest traditional Chinese noria, the Lanzhou Water Wheel, upper reaches of the Yellow River waterwheel, and the spokes of the waterwheel, production materials, shape structure, and other morphological characteristics have undergone significant changes; (2) The natural environment, including Loess Plateau topography and geomorphology, arid and semi-arid climate, and the cultural environment, including Loess culture and arid and semi-arid farming culture in the upper reaches of the Yellow River, Gansu, Qinghai, and Ningxia, are the main motive factors for the evolution of the adaptation of the Yellow River waterwheel morphology; the natural environment is a direct factor and the cultural environment is an indirect factor. (3) The regional adaptation system of vernacular craft consists of both human and natural factors, and its "unity of man and nature" contains both ecological theoretical and tourism implementation values. (4) By retaining their symbolic traits, transforming their functional roles, and modernizing their materials and techniques, vernacular crafts can be passed down in a variety of ways.

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    The process and mechanism of tourism promoting the reconstruction of ethnic villages: Taking Puzhehei Xianrendong Village as an example
    Li Jia, Zhu Min
    ECOTOURISM    2023, 13 (4): 694-705.   DOI: 10.12342/zgstly.20230031
    Abstract50)   HTML8)    PDF (4031KB)(25)      

    Ethnic villages are rich in tourism resources, such as culture and ecology, and tourism development has become an important driver of their reconstruction. Taking Puzhihei Xianrendong Village as a case, this paper explores the process and mechanism of tourism promoting the reconstruction of ethnic villages by using the methods of fieldwork, in-depth interview and participatory observation. The research indicates that: (1) driven by tourism, the development of Xianrendong Village has gone through three stages: exploration, accelerated transformation and system reconstruction. (2) The transformation of traditional agriculture and fishery to tourism functions such as sightseeing and recreation, cultural experience and leisure vacation has led to the diversification of villagers’ livelihood and the upgrading of village industrial structure, thus promoting the reconstruction of rural economy; the development of tourism industry promotes the protection and landscape utilization of production, living and ecological space, accelerates the compound utilization and integrated development of “production-living-ecology space”, and promotes the reconstruction of rural space. The development of tourism industry has promoted the diversification of rural governance subjects and improved the enthusiasm of villagers to participate in rural governance. The traditional self-governance system based on the social relations of bloodline and acquaintances has transformed to the modern “three-governance” system with the core of the business relationship and system. (3) Tourism promotes the goal enhancement, motivation stimulation, factor integration, community participation and normative restriction in the development of ethnic villages, and then forms a virtuous circle mechanism of value vision renewal, core motivation transformation, development factors integration, expansion of participants, optimization of out-of-order regulation, and promotes the reconstruction of rural economy, space, and social systems.

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